What is a growth mindset in math learning?

Students with a growth mindset believe that their math proficiency and intelligence are malleable, whereas students with a fixed mindset view math as an innate and unchangeable "gift".

Adopting a growth mindset in math not only enhances students' resilience in the face of challenges but also significantly boosts their engagement and selfassurance in navigating mathematical knowledge.
Students with a growth mindset actively pay attention to, rectify, and learn from mistakes when tackling math challenges.

In one study, 7thgraders who received growth mindset interventions were 3 times as likely to show improvements in math motivation or performance as the control group.

Such interventions reversed the declining trajectory of the 7thgraders' math grades (figure 1),
Figure 1: math grades of experimental (intervention) v.s. control (no intervention) group at Time 13 (Blackwell et al, 2007).
Image credit: Turner (2020)
What is a mathematical mindset?

Jo Boaler, Professor of Mathematical Education at Stanford University, defines a mathematical mindset as "an active approach to mathematics knowledge, in which students see their role as understanding and sensemaking."

Students with a mathematical mindset approach math visually and creatively; exercise flexible number sense and conceptual thinking instead of rote memorization; explore connections between ideas and methods; heavily engage in logical reasoning.

Developing a mathematical mindset in early grades lays the foundation for advanced computations and problemsolving in later grades.

In one study, a 4week camp focusing on mathematical and growth mindset development boosted 57th grade participants' math standardized test performance by an average of 50%.
References
1. Blackwell, L. S., Trzesniewski, K. H., & Dweck, C. S. (2007). Implicit Theories of Intelligence Predict Achievement Across an Adolescent Transition: A Longitudinal Study and an Intervention. Child Development, 78(1), 246–263. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.14678624.2007.00995.x
2. Boaler, J. (2016). Mathematical mindsets: Unleashing students' potential through creative math, inspiring messages and innovative teaching. JosseyBass/Wiley.
3. Boaler, J., Dieckmann, J. A., LaMar, T., Leshin, M., SelbachAllen, M., & PérezNúñez, G. (2021). The Transformative Impact of a Mathematical Mindset Experience Taught at Scale. Frontiers in Education, 6. https://doi.org/10.3389/feduc.2021.784393
4. Dweck, C. S. (2007). Is Math a Gift? Beliefs That Put Females at Risk. In S. J. Ceci & W. M. Williams (Eds.), Why aren't more women in science?: Top researchers debate the evidence (pp. 47–55). American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/11546004
5. Turner, E. (2020, November 23). Growth Mindset in Mathematics Hailey DeCoffe. Assistive Technology. https://assistedtechnology.weebly.com/growthmindsetinmathematicshaileydecoffe.html